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Investigating The Advantages Of Walnut Flour For Gluten-Free Bread

Walnut Flour | Med Supply US

Investigating The Advantages Of Walnut Flour

Researchers have assessed the physicochemical, sensory, and spectroscopic properties of walnut flour (WF) as a component for making low-carb bread in a study that appeared in the journal Foods. To address the growing gluten intolerance among the world’s population, scientists are looking for gluten-free foods made from substitute grains. They are investigating several supplements, including walnuts, which have a strong potential for health promotion.

This is because there is a rising market for gluten-free, ketogenic baked goods that can help type 2 diabetes patients better manage their lipid and glucose levels metabolism. Researchers can produce high-quality, gluten-free goods that satisfy customer dietary criteria by using plant-based ingredients. Concerning the study

For those following a gluten-free diet, researchers in the current study looked into WF as a substitute.

The scientists looked at how adding Walnut Flour to low-carb bread affected its physical, chemical, and sensory properties. We investigated molecular-level changes using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectra.

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The amount of WF added to buckwheat and flaxseed flours ranged from 5% to 20%. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic) acid (ABTS) were used to measure the bread’s antioxidant capacity.

Agents included sodium salicylate, gallic acid, ferrozine, and ABTS. The bread recipe required psyllium, potato fiber, guar gum, Himalayan salt, and dry yeast in addition to buckwheat flour, flaxseed flour, and partially defatted Walnut Flour (27% carbs, 16% fat, and 48% protein).

Weighed, sieved, and mixed with dry yeast, psyllium, salt, and guar gum were flour samples with 50 g each of flaxseed and buckwheat in equal amounts. The samples contained 130 mL of ambient temperature water that was added to the faucet.

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Later attempts with smaller amounts of the foundation flour (flaxseed and buckwheat flour) yielded 100 grams of walnut flour in total. Before being molded into 120 grams and placed in the loaf pans, the bread dough was swirled for three minutes at a speed of 200 revolutions per minute after being combined for five minutes at a speed of 100.

Repeated dough fermentation processes took place at 30 °C, 75% to 88% humidity, and for one hour. Following wetting with water and placing in bake ovens, the bread samples.

The millet seed displacement method was used to determine the bread loaves’ volume. We also evaluated the breadcrumbs’ color and pH. Crumbs that were 28 mm in diameter and 10 mm thick were collected, coded, and tested in an odor-free setting.

We assessed the bread’s sensory attributes, including flavor, appearance, feel, aroma, and general acceptability. After baking for 24 and 48 hours, bread crumbs underwent the TPA test to assess their textural qualities.


In comparison to the control bread, the addition of WF to the bread considerably increased loaf volume strengthened the dough structure, and decreased baking loss to 14%. The volume was greatest in the 20% WF bread.

From 23 g per 100 g dry mass (DM) in control bread to 35 g per 100 g DM in 20% WF bread, the protein concentration increased noticeably. Additionally, WF inclusion decreased the brightness of the crumb while increasing the redness and yellowness.

Similarly, the quantity of fat rose from 3.3 g to 7.3 g/100 g DM whereas the amount of carbohydrates reduced from 22 g to 7.2 g/100 g DM. WF likely improved the chewiness and hardness of the crumb through interactions with the food matrix. Changes in protein, carbohydrate, and fat content were visible in the FTIR spectrum, with proteins showing higher band intensities. The authors advocated 15% WF bread, which was well-liked by consumers.

The phenolic components, lipid, and protein content of the 15% WF bread were around 40%, 4%, and 8% higher, respectively. Additionally, WF bread has much higher antioxidant activity compared to control bread. Strong swelling and water retention capabilities of WF fiber and protein helped the bread crumbs’ structural stability and their capacity to contain fermentation gases.

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Total and soluble fiber concentrations in 20% WF bred were slightly lower, at 31 and 45 g for 100 g DM, respectively. The pH of the WF-fortified bread slightly decreased, showing that walnut flour had no chemical interactions with the other ingredients and had no effect on the control of the acid-base balance.

Given that walnuts are rich in minerals like calcium, magnesium, and potassium, the increased ash percentage brought on by WF supplementation indicated that the mineral content of the test samples had increased.

The flavor ratings for the bread samples with up to 10% WF addition were the highest, while those with 20% Walnut Flour received the lowest ratings. The best sensory results were from wheat bread that had up to 5% Walnut Flour supplementation. Samples with a 20% WF concentration had the highest hardness after 24 hours of storage, while samples with 15% and 20% WF had the highest hardness after 48 hours.


Overall, the study’s findings demonstrated that using WF in place of wheat bread produced low-carbohydrate loaves with greater volume, lower baking loss, and desired sensory characteristics. The protein content of the WF-enriched bread was higher whereas the carbohydrate and fat contents were lower. Breadcrumbs from the WF-fortified bread are more yellow, darker, and crimson than those from the control bread.

The addition of Walnut Flour improved antioxidant activity while also increasing the chewiness and hardness of the crumb. Researchers advise using 15% WF in bread, which is known for having a high level of sensory acceptability. Increased quantities of phenolic chemicals, fat, and protein were also present in WF-fortified bread. To assess the shelf life and ideal storage conditions, more research is required.