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Study Reveals CGMs Impact on Pregnancy & Maternal and Neonatal Health

Study Reveals CGMs Impact on Pregnancy & Maternal and Neonatal Health

Understanding the Impact of Continuous Glucose Monitoring on Maternal and Neonatal Health

A recent study published in Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics sheds light on the potential advantages of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) for pregnant women dealing with type 2 diabetes. The research unveils crucial insights into the correlation between CGM usage and glycemic improvements during pregnancy.

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Key Insights from the Study:

The study, led by Anna McLean, MBBS, FRACP, from the Menzies School of Health Research at Charles Darwin University in Australia, focused on pregnant women with type 2 diabetes. The findings revealed that the consistent use of CGM, surpassing 50% of the time, was associated with notable glycemic benefits.

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During the observational study involving 41 pregnant women (aged 18 and above) with preexisting type 2 diabetes before 30 weeks of gestation, participants were equipped with the FreeStyle Libre 1 (Abbott) flash glucose monitor in addition to their regular care. CGM metrics were assessed during the early and late stages of pregnancy, precisely within the first and last 2 weeks of sensor usage before childbirth.

Crucial Metrics Analyzed:

  • Time in range (glucose levels between 63 mg/dL to 140 mg/dL)
  • Time above range (glucose levels exceeding 140 mg/dL)
  • Time below range (glucose levels less than 63 mg/dL)
  • Mean glucose levels
  • Glucose standard deviation
  • Interquartile range
  • Glucose management indicator

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Key Findings:

Noteworthy stability in CGM metrics was observed from early to late pregnancy among participants overall.
However, a subgroup of women who diligently utilized CGM for more than 50% of the time demonstrated significant improvements in their glycemic trajectories.

This subgroup exhibited a 9 percentage point increase in time in range, a 12 percentage point reduction in time above range, a 1 mmol/L drop in average glucose, and a 3 percentage point increase in time below range and coefficient of variation from early to late pregnancy.

Impact on Maternal and Neonatal Health:

The study also highlighted the implications of these metrics on maternal and neonatal health outcomes.
Increased time in range during both early and late pregnancy was associated with reduced odds of large-for-gestational-age babies.
Conversely, higher mean glucose levels during early and late pregnancy correlated with increased odds of neonatal hypoglycemia and large-for-gestational-age babies.

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Future Directions:

The researchers emphasized the need for further investigations to explore whether early pregnancy interventions involving CGM technology could mitigate the risk of complications such as large-for-gestational-age births. They underscored the importance of tailored diabetes management approaches for women with type 2 diabetes, particularly those from diverse cultural backgrounds, to enhance outcomes for both mothers and their babies.

As the study provides compelling evidence regarding the benefits of CGM utilization, it advocates for a more comprehensive and inclusive approach to diabetes management during pregnancy.