Low-Fat Milk Tied to Prediabetes Risk Increase, High-Fat Yogurt Associated with Lower Risk
A recent exploration published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition delved into the relationship between dairy intake and prediabetes. The study not only sought connections between dairy consumption and prediabetes incidence but also investigated various dairy products, metabolic factors, lifestyle behaviors, and food choices potentially influencing this link.
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Prediabetes signifies elevated blood glucose levels, falling between the normal range and diabetic thresholds, amplifying the risk for cardiovascular ailments and type 2 diabetes. Identifying modifiable factors like dietary habits becomes crucial in averting this condition.
Dairy products, known for their nutrient content, also contain elements like salt, saturated fats, and added sugars, presenting a mixed picture regarding their association with prediabetes.
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Researchers examined the association between prediabetes risk and specific dairy products using data from 74,132 participants in the Lifelines study. Validated Flower-Food Frequency Questionnaires gauged dairy consumption at baseline, while prediabetes was evaluated during follow-ups using WHO/IEC guidelines for fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels.
Utilizing Poisson regression modeling and mixed-graphical modeling networks, the team adjusted relative risk values for demographic factors, lifestyle behaviors, food consumption, and family history of diabetes. The study spanned evaluations from 2006 to 2013 with subsequent assessments scheduled every five years.
Methodology and Findings
The research encompassed various dairy products such as fermented dairy, yogurt, milk, cream, ice cream, and cheese. Blood samples taken at initiation and follow-up determined glucose and HbA1c levels using specific techniques.
The study excluded specific demographics, focusing on plausible dietary data. Ultimately, 27,710 individuals without follow-up data and others with missing or incomplete prediabetes information were excluded.
The analysis unveiled that while most dairy products showed neutral associations with prediabetes, low-fat-type milk and plain milk were linked to increased Prediabetes Risk, while high-fat-type yogurt demonstrated a lower risk. Interestingly, high-fat yogurt consumption displayed no clear associations with lifestyle risk factors or food consumption.
Higher daily dairy consumption correlated with older age, increased physical activity, elevated alcohol intake, and higher blood pressure among participants. Notably, high-fat-type dairy intake exhibited a lower prediabetes risk in those over 60 years old, and high-fat-type yogurt showed a decreased risk in highly educated individuals.
However, the association between high-fat yogurt and reduced prediabetes risk became statistically insignificant when controlling for other food categories. Low-fat milk consumption showed a significant association with Prediabetes Risk , particularly in the top quartile, while high-fat-type yogurt displayed a reduced risk.
The findings underscored a concerning tie between low-fat milk intake and prediabetes risk, while high-fat yogurt consumption seemed to lower this risk. Yet, further investigation is warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms associating yogurt with diabetes, particularly in high-risk groups and considering diverse lifestyle factors.
The study elucidates a complex interplay between dairy products and prediabetes, emphasizing the need for more extensive research to discern their specific impacts on health outcomes.